Wednesday, August 26, 2020

John Deweys Critique of Socioeconomic Individualism Essay -- Sociolog

My paper endeavors to show the consistency of John Dewey’s non-individualistic independence. It subtleties Dewey’s guarantee that the conventional dualism restricting the person to the social is politically incapacitating. We discover Dewey in the 20’s and 30’s, for instance, contending that the production of an authentic open field, one fit for blocking the ascent of a counterfeit gap among sociality and individualityâ€or, rather, one equipped for blocking the ascent of a fake abyss between thoughts of sociality and individualityâ€had itself been prevented by an acquired, obsolete, yet in any case predominant specially called independence. By blocking open examination itself, by enervating what Dewey called social request, and in this way by deceiving truly delicate appraisals of elusive social marvels, our unexpectedly lashed independence floats randomly and dangerously through the current time. To the extent that it neglects to acknowledge how exp osure and singularity can be a consistent, inseparable, and commonly molding pair, independence leeches a large number of today’s people of their arranged and arranging recorded potential. In the last part of his work The Public and its Problems (PAIP) John Dewey proposes that, notwithstanding the request of most social scholars, on the off chance that we respect the alleged individual/social differentiation as a hole to be crossed over or as a direct opposite to be combined then our nose for open and just change has been deceived by a focal distraction of political innovation: The fundamental to productive conversation of social issues is that sure snags will be survived, hindrances living in our current originations of the technique for social request. One of the deterrents in the way is the seemingl... ...ical progress, and at exactly that point will we establish the framework for the development of open mechanical assemblies which don't only police nuclear selves adversely in their fights for monetary matchless quality and which don't simply accommodate Society to the cases of private Selves however which produce selves constantly impervious to atomization. Surely, as we additionally demonstrated above, as per Dewey the issue of exposure in current society and the advanced state lies less needing overcoming any issues between the one and the numerous as in indicating the unreasonable impacts of deduction as per the applied plan of a hole. It is at present utter horror, as it were, to consider conciliatorily exposure, to feel that an energetic open field can exist just when certain individual cases are relinquished or, then again, that distinction will flourish just to the detriment of the more noteworthy open great.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Zara Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Zara - Essay Example By utilizing these chips, Zara can without much of a stretch and rapidly decide their shopper patterns. The organization can distinguish which of its items are immediately purchased by their clients. RFID innovation have permitted Zara to lead inventories normally and this encourages the organization to paint a precise image of what designs are selling admirably and which ones are moping. This helps the organization to plan and fulfill the need presented by their shoppers through the most sought after design. Different enterprises could likewise embrace the radio recurrence distinguishing proof RFID chips to help track their business. This innovation can help organizations inside different enterprises to follow their sells or business resources. This methodology can get embraced by associations that are in the vehicle business. By setting RFID chips on their trucks, transport organizations can figure out where there trucks are at a specific time. This encourages the organizations to monitor the transportation and development of merchandise which they might be accused of. Legitimate following in business assists with boosting sells and give a decent ground to stock

Wednesday, August 19, 2020

Caregiver Stress From Caring for Someone with PTSD

Caregiver Stress From Caring for Someone with PTSD PTSD Coping Print Stress From Supporting Someone With PTSD By Matthew Tull, PhD twitter Matthew Tull, PhD is a professor of psychology at the University of Toledo, specializing in post-traumatic stress disorder. Learn about our editorial policy Matthew Tull, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Daniel B. Block, MD on January 23, 2020 twitter linkedin Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania. Learn about our Medical Review Board Daniel B. Block, MD Updated on February 09, 2020 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes & Risk Factors Treatment Living With In Children Hero Images / Getty Images In This Article Table of Contents Expand Stress Associated With Support What Is Caregiver Burden? Studies on Caregiver Burden Prevention How to Cope Final Note on Caring for a Loved One With PTSD View All The impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can reach far beyond the individual with PTSD, affecting the lives of friends and family caring for someone with PTSD. How can you recognize and cope with this stress as a caregiver for a loved one with PTSD? Stress Associated With Support Receiving support from others is very important during times of stress. Seeking support from another person is a healthy and effective way of dealing with a stressful event. During times of stress, people often turn to their loved ones first for support. It is important to realize that providing support requires energy and can be stressful. Watching a partner or spouse struggle with a problem can be upsetting and stressful. In many cases, it is possible to provide support without getting personally overwhelmed. However, when the stress is constant and support is frequently needed, caregiver burden may occur. What Is Caregiver Burden? PTSD can be viewed as a chronic illness, and the person with PTSD may require constant care from a loved one, such as a partner, parent, or another family member. Partners of people with PTSD may be faced with a number of stressors that go along with caring for and living with someone with a chronic disease. These stressors include financial strain, managing the persons symptoms, dealing with crises, the loss of friends or the loss of intimacy. Due to a loved ones illness, partners may be the only people who can take care of such stressors. This puts a large burden on them, and as a result, they may experience tremendous strain and stress, or caregiver burden. Studies on Caregiver Burden A few studies have looked at caregiver burden among partners caring for loved ones with PTSD. A brief discussion of two of these studies is provided below. In one study, researchers looked at 154 spouses of veterans with PTSD. They found that the severity of the veterans PTSD symptoms was connected to the amount of caregiver burden and distress experienced by the spouse.?? In other words, as a spouses PTSD symptoms got worse, so did the caregivers amount of burden and distress. Researchers have also looked at how PTSD symptoms such as depression, anger, and violence play out in relationships with PTSD patients and their caregivers. There may be a connection between how much detail about the trauma is shared with a partner?? but more research is needed to better understand the issues. Mental Health of Caregivers Studies looking at the wives of combat veterans have found that this stress can have damaging consequences psychologically. Among wives of combat veterans with PTSD, there was an increased risk not only of PTSD, but somatic disease, clinical depression, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and an increased level of suicidality.?? Prevention It is important that caregivers have basic information about PTSD. Simply knowing the symptoms of PTSD and where they come from, can help caregivers gain a better understanding of their loved ones diagnosis and behavior. Mental health professionals recognize the stress that comes with caring for a loved one with PTSD. Caregivers may also benefit from attending individual therapy or support groups to find support for themselves, and to learn how to cope better with their loved ones PTSD. Couples counseling may also be useful. Recently, online support groups have popped up, giving caregivers the opportunity to talk 24/7 with other caregivers of people with PTSD. As with any support group, its important to know that while many of these provide excellent support, some groups can actually make you feel more depressed. If you choose to go online, make sure to connect with people who share your challenges but support you in coping. How to Cope Unfortunately, despite the significant impact of PTSD on family and friends, remarkably little research has looked at methods of helping caregivers cope with this stress. In addition, most of the research is dated and focuses on the incidence of caregiver burden rather than any effort to look at ways of reducing the burden. Not only is the health of caregivers important and worthy of more research, but these caregivers are also the primary source of support needed by those living with PTSD.?? Until more is known, caregivers of people living with PTSD may wish to look at ways that caregivers of those with other conditions such as dementia and cancer have coped with their challenge. Final Note on Caring for a Loved One With PTSD Caregivers may feel guilty if they take time for themselves; however, it is important for caregivers to realize that they too need time to recharge their batteries. Living with and caring for someone with PTSD is stressful. Unlike some conditions which are short-term, PTSD is a chronic condition that can feel unending at times. It is a marathon rather than a sprint, and as in a marathon, its important for caregivers to pace themselves and take time to rest. The more a caregiver can learn how to care for themselves, the better they will be able to care for others. Some of these simple tips for caregivers of cancer patients pertain just as much to caregivers of people with PTSD. Hopefully, the stress impact on caregivers of people with PTSD will be studied more carefully in the near future, not just to document the presence of stress, but to look for ways in which caregivers can best cope.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay on Martin Luther Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail

It was change created by a human for the human, a change which made the life of others livable. During the civil rights movement in America in 1960’s various techniques were used to gain the civil rights for the black people in a series of which came the â€Å"Letter form Birmingham jail† written by Martin Luther King himself. Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail was a profound and persuasive written argument which captured the emotions of many people encompassing rigid life experiences, educated observances, and deeply rooted spiritual beliefs. In this letter King freely expressed his position concerning the injustice that black people faced in America. This injustice was segregation for the system of laws and customs separating blacks and†¦show more content†¦Through inductive logic King draws a conclusion about unjust laws by his personal observation: Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in its application. For instance, I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit. Now there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance, which requires a permit for parade. But such an ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First-Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and protest (53). By this statement King proved that in its application an unjust law can oppose a just law. Nevertheless, in this circumstance the just law is the First-Amendment right to peaceful assembly and protest and the unjust law prohibits one group of people from obtaining this right as a citizen of the United States of America. From this point Kings appeal to reason carefully merges into an appeal to character. However, after King demonstrated how a law is unjust, he makes his position clear concerning breaking laws. King was aware of his audiences disproval of breaking laws. According to King in this letter he doesnt advocate evading or defying the law, and he found it very important that his audience see these facts clearly. It is critical for King toShow MoreRelatedMartin Luther Kings Letter From Birmingham Jail839 Words   |  4 Pages1960’s one of the most well- known civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested and was placed into a jail in Birmingham Alabama for eleven days (Westbrook 1). Martin Luther King did not commit a crime that was in violation of any law in the U.S Constitution. King was arrested for taking a direct action for the Black community that was harassed and judged every day for there color of their skin. In King’s Letter From Birmingham Jail on the 16th of April 1963 he illuminates the daily brutalityRead MoreMartin Luther Kings Letter From Birmingham Jail1340 Words   |  6 PagesOn April 16, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. wrote a letter from Birmingham Jail after he had been arrested for nonviolent protests. In this letter he addressed a few of his fellow clergymen who had commented on King’s work in Birmingham and how they perceived it to be â€Å"unwise and untimely.† He told them that he had, in fact, been issued an invitation to help the people of Birmingham and that he was â€Å"compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond [his] hometown.† King assured t he clergymen that heRead MoreRev. Martin Luther Kings Letter From Birmingham Jail950 Words   |  4 Pages15 November 2017 â€Å"No, baby, no, you may not go, for the dogs are fierce and wild, and clubs and hoses, guns and jails, aren’t good for a little child.† (Allusion - referring to another work to apply symbolic meaning). This quote from â€Å"Ballad of Birmingham† illustrates the horror and cruelty of how African Americans were treated at that time, as no place was safe or free from racism; there was no limits to the violence that came with it. The 1950’s and 1960’s was an era where the Civil RightsRead MoreSummary Of Martin Luther Kings Letter From Birmingham Jail1159 Words   |  5 Pages Martin Luther King lived in a time where Negro people were faced with a multitude of social injustices. King was actively participating in passive protests opposing the laws which upheld these injustices. In his â€Å"Letter From Birmingham Jail† King replies to the criticism of eight clergymen, who called him and his companions extremists and law breakers (King 18 7). In his letter of response, King both shows his disappointment with these men, as well as plead with them to see his side. King wantsRead More Martin Luther Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail Essay1241 Words   |  5 PagesRhetorical Analysis of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.s Letter from Birmingham Jail In his essay Letter from Birmingham Jail, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. disproves the assumptions of people that believe racism is acceptable when he compares the maltreatment of blacks to the inhumane treatment of the Jews by Hitler. King establishes a relationship with his audience by connecting on a level that is larger than the exploitation of African Americans rights. He forces his readers to think aboutRead MoreReaction Of Martin Luther Kings Letter From A Birmingham Jail1061 Words   |  5 Pages â€Å"Letter from a Birmingham Jail† Reaction â€Å"We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.† In 1963, Martian Luther King Jr was protesting for blacks to have equal rights in Birmingham, Al. The city administration found out about these protests and ordered the police to arrest them. Now in jail was confronted by a court and ordered not to protest in Birmingham. In response King wrote what is now known as the â€Å"LetterRead MoreAntigone And Martin Luther Kings Letter From Birmingham Jail831 Words   |  4 Pages54 years ago, and even during the BC ages was it a problem. Dr King’s letter explains how he knew he broke the law by blocking a road, but did it due to the racism and injustices that were happening. In Antigone, she buries her brother even though he was not meant to, and due to she is a female and that she broke the law that was unjust her consequence is to die. Sophocles’ Antigone and Martin Luther Kingâ⠂¬â„¢s â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail,† explore a common theme that law sometimes conflicts with justiceRead MoreAnalysis of Martin Luther Kings â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail†973 Words   |  4 PagesMartin Luther King Jr, an civil rights activist, fought for the rights of African Americans in 1963. King organized various non-violent demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama that resulted in his arrest. While in jail, King received a letter from eight Alabama clergyman explaining their distress and opposition to King and his followers actions. This letter occasioned his reply and caused King to write a persuasive letter justifying his actions and presence in Birmingham. Although King’s reply wasRead MoreAnalysis Of Martin Luther Kings Letter From Birmingham Jail925 Words   |  4 PagesIn April of 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. found himself in a small cell in Birmingham Alabama, arrested for his participation in the peaceful protest of discrimination agains t African-Americans. King firmly believed that non-violent protest, in the form of sit-ins, boycotts, and picketing, would raise awareness of the prejudices African-Americans suffered and, in turn, lead to progress in gaining equal rights between the races. His â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail,† which he wrote during his incarcerationRead MoreMartin Luther Kings Letter From Birmingham Jail1707 Words   |  7 PagesThrough the span of Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963) Martin Luther King Jr., makes stretched out implications to various logicians, among them Aquinas and Socrates. His correlation would appear to show that he imparts a liking to them. In any case, the clearness with which he makes his contentions and the commitment to a solitary start strikes most firmly of Kant. Similarly, as Kant s artful culmination, Critique of Pure Reason, endeavored to totally overturn a formerly acknowledged method of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Hannibal’s Life and Conquest Free Essays

Research Paper Hannibal’s Life and Conquest Hannibal is one of the greatest generals of his time. To better understand Hannibal and his crusades against the Romans you must know a bit about his family history. Hannibal was only 25 years old when he was put in command of the Carthaginian armies and the Carthaginian government in Spain. We will write a custom essay sample on Hannibal’s Life and Conquest or any similar topic only for you Order Now Even at a young age he knew his responsibilities, so he kept his father’s plan of military conquest and his brother-in-law`s policy of strengthening Carthaginian power by democracy. He is one of the sons of Hamilcar Barca, a Carthaginian leader. He had several sisters and two brothers, Hasdrubal and Mago. His brothers-in-law were Hasdrubal the Fair and the Numidian king Naravas. So his family is either well known or rich. He was still a child when his sisters married, and his brothers-in-law were close associates during his father’s struggles in the Mercenary War and the Punic conquest of Iberia. To better understand Hannibal’s rise to greatness one needs to look into his father’s history. After Carthage’s defeat in the First Punic War, Hamilcar set out to improve his family’s and Carthage’s fortunes. With that in mind and supported by Gades, Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula. Carthage at the time was in such a poor state that its navy was unable to transport his army to Iberia (Hispania); instead, Hamilcar had to march it towards the Pillars of Hercules and transport it across the Strait of Gibraltar. Hannibal had once asked his father and begged to go with him to war; Hamilcar agreed and demanded that he swear that as long as he lived he would never be a friend of Rome. There was a story stating that, Hannibal’s father took him up and brought him to a sacrificial chamber. Hamilcar held Hannibal over the fire roaring in the chamber and made him swear that he would never be a friend of Rome. According to that tradition, Hannibal’s oath had taken place in the town of Peniscola, today part of the community of Valencia, Spain. Hannibal’s father soon went on the conquest of Hispania. His father soon died in the battle. Soon after Hannibal’s brother-in-law Hasdrubal gained command of the army. Hasdrubal made Hannibal serve as an officer under him. Hasdrubal then pursued a policy of consolidation of Carthage’s Iberian interests, even signing a treaty with Rome whereby Carthage would not expand north of the Ebro River, so long as Rome did not expand south of it. Hasdrubal also tried to consolidate Carthaginian power by doing diplomatic relationships with native tribes. As a part of his deals Hasdrubal arranged the marriage between Hannibal and an Iberian princess named Imilce. So Hannibal got hooked up with a wife. Soon enough though there was assassination of Hasdrubal around 221 B. C. E. It was the rise of the Great Hannibal was proclaimed as the commander-in-chief by the army and confirmed in his appointment by the Carthaginian government. This meant that not only was the leader of the military but also the political leader as well. Hannibal had spent two years consolidating his holdings and completing the conquest of Hispania south of the Ebro River. Rome however was started getting scared because of the growing strength of Hannibal in Iberia. Rome decided to make an alliance with the city of Saguntum, which lay a considerable distance south of the River Ebro and claimed the city as its protectorate. Which in a previous agreement they were breaking their treaty. Hannibal obviously perceived this as a breach of the treaty signed with Hasdrubal. So this forced Hannibal with his hands tied behind his back to siege to the city, which fell after eight months. Rome reacted to this (of course) apparent violation of the treaty and demanded justice from Carthage. Rome declared war on Carthage. This begins the second Punic War. I believe this was just all done to invoke a war. Because Hannibal’s great popularity, the Carthaginian government did not make a fuss about Hannibal’s actions. Hannibal was now determined to carry the war into the heart of Italy by a rapid march through Hispania and southern Gaul. After hearing the declaration of war Hannibal immediately starts off towards Rome. The problem was he had to go by land because Rome controlled the seas. Hannibal takes an army of thirty-five to forty thousand men, some on foot and others on horse, along with fifty war elephants across the Pyrenees and the Alps. Bad luck falls into Hannibal’s lap as early snows and landslides kill many of his men and almost all of his war elephants. While traveling through the Alps he fights battles at Arausio and Genua, easily defeating the Roman warriors, although his troops are in horrible shape. He enters Italy with only twenty-six thousand men and five or six war elephants in September 218. Hannibal and his troops spent the winter in Po Valley. In the spring Hannibal was joined by the Gauls, northern Italians who were subdued into fighting the Romans. Now Hannibal had a sufficient army of infantry and cavalry. The hardened Carthaginian troops easily crushed the Roman armies in their way, but without siege equipment the Carthaginians could not destroy the Roman cities. So instead of trying to siege the city they simple killed the Roman soldiers and moved on. (He was a bad ass mofo if you know what I mean. ) Sometimes the Romans would retreat into their city surrounded by high walls so that they would not die. In 217 Hannibal won a major battle at Lake Trasimene. The Romans counterattacked with some 25,000 men, but their consul, Gaius Flaminius, was defeated and killed in an ambush between the hills and the Trasimene lake. Two legions were annihilated. One legion for a roman army comprised about 5,000 men. Hannibal`s army along with the Gauls would roam the Italian countryside and destroy any opposing army. In 216 he defeated a huge Roman army at the city of Cannae in southwestern Italy. At Cannae the Romans loss was much greater than that of Hannibal suffered. The Romans lost twenty-five thousand men and ten thousand were captured, on the other hand Hannibal only lost five thousand and seven hundred men. Hannibal, being a military genius, let the Romans advance at his main infantry, while his cavalry charged around the sides easily defeating two other groups of Roman infantry. Then after destroying the two side groups of Romans the cavalry swept around the back of the main Roman attack force. Hannibal used this strategy often because it worked so good that and the Romans had no to much pride in their formations. Even though he was killing Roman soldiers he was not destroying any cities. They were very frustrated and annoyed of Hannibal they needed him to get out of Italy, so the Romans sent armies led by Scipio, a great Roman general, to attack Carthage in Africa. Carthage ordered Hannibal to Africa to protect the city of Carthage. This was the clash of the titans, Hannibal vs. Scipio. They met at Zama, a city near Carthage. This would end up to be the final battle of the Second Punic War, and the great Hannibal would be the loser. Of course he lost with the exhaustion of all his troops and heading all the way back to Africa. Hannibal escaped but his army didn’t. After the war Carthage had to pay Rome a very large sum of money and agree to terms that they could only wage war in Africa, even to the point where they needed Rome’s permission. Hannibal returned to Carthage and became one of the two chief magistrates. He then challenged the aristocrats of being corrupt; the aristocrats told Rome that Hannibal was planning another attack on Rome with Antiochus III of Syria. Rome, already very pissed off with Hannibal, decided to deport Hannibal out of Carthage. Hannibal traveled to Syria and was made a member of the Syrian court. Vowed to his father’s words embedded in his heart and mind he had advised Antiochus III to declare war against Rome. Antiochus III decided to go on this advice and wage war on Rome, this turned out to be called the Syrian War. Though soon after Syria was defeated and Hannibal left to become a member of the Prussian court. Hannibal and his awesome persuasion skills convinced Prussia to go to war against Rome. Instead of directly attacking Rome, Prussia attacked Rome’s ally Pergamum. Rome came into the fight and demanded that Hannibal be handed over to them. Instead of being humiliated Hannibal took his own life. Hannibal Barca, being eternal enemies with Rome, fulfilled his father’s words and while doing so became one the greatest generals of his time. He could almost come close to being as great as Alexander the Great. So the start of his greatness all started with his family and the first Punic War. If people were to talk about the Punic war it would be about 2nd Punic war and Hannibal. Just to spite the Romans in the end he ended up taking his own life so no Roman can have the justice to say they killed the Great Hannibal. References 1. Harold Lamb: Hannibal (Doubleday Company, INC. , Garden City, New York 1958) 2. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hannibal 3. Cormac O’ Brien: Outnumbered (Fair Winds Press, Beverly, MA 2010) 4. ttp://www. livius. org/ha-hd/hannibal/hannibal. html 5. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hannibal [ 2 ]. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hannibal [ 3 ]. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hannibal [ 4 ]. Harold Lamb: Hannibal (Doubleday Company, INC. , Garden City, New York 1958), 71 [ 5 ]. Harold 75-78 [ 6 ]. Harold 51-52 [ 7 ]. Harold 180 [ 8 ]. Cormac O’ Brien: Outnumbered (Fair Winds Press, Beverly, MA 2010), 53 [ 9 ]. http://www. livius. org/ha-hd/hannibal/hannibal. html [ 10 ]. Harold 259 [ 11 ]. Harold 152 How to cite Hannibal’s Life and Conquest, Essays

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Enhancing Communication Social Media Platforms †MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Enhancing Communication Social Media Platforms. Answer: Introduction: Vernuccio (2014) stated that the development of social media over previous years is transforming the ways by which people can think, behave as well as communicate. Internet is not just a static resource of advertising at present days. However, people get information online by involving with the trusted as well as relatable sources, which can speak to particular interests. Social media has a degree of openness as well as transparency. It provides good opportunity for the governments in order to develop trust and public perception of work as well as services. In addition, social media makes it possible to develop trust as well as positive public perception of work as well as services. The idea of government utilize the web and associated technologies were born in 1990. In this perspective, it is important to focus on B2B, B2C and several terms b floated around as well as sought that can be defined to enable and leverage promise of web. The promise, progress as well as efforts are stymi ed that has unique requirements and challenges. The government and its roles to the society can be properly displayed with the help of software application. Current web technology allows the governments sharing information with citizen in the unlimited quantities according to their demand. Technology helps allowing citizens in order to bring issues of the concern to local as well as national governments. On the contrary, exploiting the capabilities within the system of government is a challenge encompasses policy, environmental and cultural issues. The promise of e-Government can allow the citizens accessing information and services of the government ion terms. Hence, sharing data of the government with the citizen provides transparency and openness with citizens. It also assists in enhancing operations within as well as between governments. Hence, effective e-government is not easy for accomplishing and giving unique challenges faced by the government and includes the outdated policies, personnel constraints bas well as budgetary information. Web 2.0 and social media have added the challenge, whereas the government becomes slow down for adjusting the new paradigms of interaction. Moreover, social media helps for councils as well as governments in order to communicate directly with people. The governments are using social media in order to provide new enhanced government services more frequently (Ventola 2014). It has been reported from millions of users irrespective of demographic groups, Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter can be helpful to meet core operational goals efficiently compared to conventional communications as well as marketing tactics. Hence, it is required to develop application or platform that can be helpful to communicate with the government and citizens of the nation. The research aims to develop a software application helpful to integrate and involve citizens and the government. In addition, the research has aim to integrate the account of social media for the users in the purpose of logging into the application and test effectiveness of the application. Research questions The research questions can listed as followed. What could be the solution for integrating and engaging citizens? How social media account can be integrated with the process? In order to carry out the research in proper way, it is important to select right tools for the research. Choosing research philosophy, research approach and research design will be helpful for the research. In addition, it is important to understand right process for data collection and analysis technique for the research. Research philosophy is useful to illustrate the process of assumptions carried out for the research (Lewis 2015). Research philosophy deals with source, development as well as nature of knowledge. Addressing research philosophy in the research engages being aware as well as formulate beliefs and assumptions. Each stage of the research procedure is usually based on the assumptions serve as the base of research strategy. The research process is varied while carrying out the research, which is essential for adopting research philosophy. It needs to be effective as well as must be effective and appropriate alignment. In the research, positivism philosophy will be selected. Selection of positivism philosophy will be helpful to evaluate the hidden facts in the research. In addition, as the nature of the study is limited in time, selection of positivism philosophy will be helpful for the research. Research approach Brinkmann (2014) mentioned that deducative and inductive are the approaches, selected by the researcher for the study. Deductive and inductive are the types of approaches selected by a researcher in order to conduct the research. The relevance of hypothesis to the particular study is considered as major distinctive point between the two mentioned approaches, A researcher usually selects inductive approach when adequate data for the research topic is selected. On the other hand, deductive approach is useful for the research as it is helpful to deduce theory and models related to the topic of the research. In the research, deductive approach will be selected for the research. Research design is divided into two major groups such as exploratory as well as conclusive. According to the name that has merely aims exploring the particular aspects of research in exploratory research. This type of research does not aim providing final as well as conclusive answers for the research questions. In exploratory research, it is important to integrate insights regarding a situation. Conclusive research deals with verification of insights and help in selecting a course of action. Conclusive research is divided into two major categories such as descriptive and casual. In descriptive research design, particular components, causes and phenomenon are suggested in the research area. Exploratory, explanatory and descriptive research designs are the types of research design. In the research, descriptive research will be selected. It will be helpful for understanding the role of social media for communicating with the citizens and the government. Hardware and software requirement It is important to identify the hardware and software requirements for the research. In the research, it is required to develop application or platform that can integrate people with the government (Carr and Hayes 2015). In order to develop the platform, computer is required with proper configuration. The essential factors that are required to remember are as followed. The user case is one of the most important for understanding the difference between a software requirement specification and use case. Usually, the use case steps are written in a simple way for understanding the structured story utilizing verbage of the domain. The software requirements need to fulfil deliverables of the project. The functional terms, leaving design as well as implementation details is significant for the developers. Ethical and access issues Application software is used to the modern decision-making process that includes data storage as well as manipulation, availability of data as well as selection (Munar and Jacobsen 2014). However, it is the issue for software development and the government linked with the organization. After demonstrating software management, easy access for the files is not good. However, some information need to be able to view by other people when it is required. The development office has an essential role to make the changes for the system in order to fulfil the requirements. It is also required to analyse ethical, social, legal as well as professional issues related to design and development of the project. Ethical principles need to taken into account by the development office as per the requirements of the management. Involving human participants in the project include ethical principles (Sobaih et al. 2016). Gathering project requirements, the respondents have the right for selection and it is informed regarding the research. Beneficence is considered as one of the major principles for considering the project. Risks for the participants need to be minimized, whereas justice is ethical principles that provide priority to the equality. The top management as well as lower level employees needs to be treated equally. Higher management is required to hide information from the stakeholders and disclose sensitive data and the key issues from the stakeholders (Ngai et al. 2015). However, as an ethical software engineer decisions are required to take ethically. In the development, vulnerable groups will not be violated. Potential value of research The potential social values as well as advantages for the research are distributed systematically. With the help of checklist as well as description of the project, it is required to address at least 10 distinctive aims of the research. McCann and Barlow (2015) commented that the primary focus is on developing as well as testing of the instruments as well as taking preliminary look in the value systems. Completion of the project will be helpful to integrate citizens with the government by application software. As the governments across the world require involving citizens, it is essential to find out the suitable way to make people understand regarding initiatives, projects are important for finding out the right process. However, it is important to make the policies suitable for the research. It is also difficult to inform that the government require important aspects for the aspects. Thus, for development of social media to mitigate the communication barrier, it is important to tak e proper initiative by the government for citizens. The policies as well as facilities are required to set up properly for communication technology and use of social media platforms to make it accessible. Thus, connecting common people as well as the government by social media platform will be helpful to understand about initiatives of the government as well as notify their requirements. In addition, development of software application can integrate people easily with the users with the help of smart phones. However, it is essential to be aware about the misuse of social media accounts as privacy and security issues are involved with it. Research plan Main activities/ stages Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Topic Selection Secondary data collection Creating the layout for research Literature review Creating research Plan Selection of suitable Research Techniques Gathering hardware and software requirements Development of the application Deploying the application Testing of the application Creating Rough Draft Submitting Final Work Initial literature review Social media has evolved into a preferred method in order to reach and involve with masses and culminating in the process of exponential amplification. There are several effective ways through which, social media can be used to communicate with the government. It helps to prevent crime as well as police assistance (Effing and Spil 2016). The police departments are posting tips for protecting crime. Time sensitive information and alerts using the social media channels can be helpful (Wu et al. 2015). Weather as well as other emergencies occurs quickly with no warning. In addition, social media channels can assist the local governments to communicate regarding safety information. Social media achieve activities as well as class registration (Huotari et al. 2015). Public service announcements are effective way to raise awareness of the issues, which affect in the community. Hence, social media has an important role to develop effective communication and get in touch with the governments. In the research, a software application will be developed to communicate with the governments locally. In the application, it is required to sign up the application with the user id and password (McFarland and Ployhart 2015). With rapid development of information and communication technology, social media usage has increased rapidly. In this perspective, use of social account to sign up will be helpful to integrate social profile of the citizens with the governments. Hence, it is important to develop the application that can be helpful to integrate social media (Chua and Chang 2016). Apart from these, as the use of smart phones increase, integration of social media for sign up process will be helpful to connect the users easily with the application and get notified regarding the initiatives and activities taken by the government. As the number of Facebook users increase, the uses are voicing opinions about the user policy as well as functionality. The staffs of Facebook are able to follow the opinions as well as platforms (Lunnay et al. 2015). It results increased participation of the users. Hence, it is sure that the government departments need to start using social media channels for better communication in a valuable way for achieving the objectives. Communication is considered as immediate relationships and addresses the complaints. Social media acts as a dominant value for two-way communication and makes the ability for receiving the feedback and monitor the process. Benefits of using social media in government There is an important role of the social media for government from passing of new legislation to the large campaigns. the government needs to participate actively in the conversation. There are several policy makers taking notice about the trend (Taggart et al. 2015). The social media study in 2015 commissioned that American Congressional Management Foundation, there are 76% of American policymakers reported that social media has enabled social media in order to have meaningful interactions with the constituents (Poell 2014). Apart from this, face-to-face appearance has driven campaign trail where social media assisted candidates to reach audiences across the nation. On the other hand, social media is helpful for accurate poll forecasting through social media (Househ et al. 2014). Crisis communication is one of the methods through which government can notify the citizens regarding any emergency. The integration of social media account with the application will be helpful to know about the situation. According to Killian and McManus (2015), simple measures can be helpful for safeguard the government against the security breaches. Apart from this, there are chances of using social media platforms where fake user id can open and misuse the application that has a large impact on the society. On the other hand, remaining complaint to the privacy demands is considered as important for a government. Involvement of citizens can deploy keeping in compliance. In current years, the government bodies as well as employees need to respond in government discourse (Hajli 2015). It is important for innovative policy makers as well as staffs are adapting the application by creating high involvement of social media may affect overall process. References Brinkmann, S., 2014. Interview. InEncyclopedia of critical psychology(pp. 1008-1010). Springer New York. Carr, C.T. and Hayes, R.A., 2015. Social media: Defining, developing, and divining.Atlantic Journal of Communication,23(1), pp.46-65. Chua, T.H.H. and Chang, L., 2016. Follow me and like my beautiful selfies: Singapore teenage girls engagement in self-presentation and peer comparison on social media.Computers in Human Behavior,55, pp.190-197. Effing, R. and Spil, T.A., 2016. The social strategy cone: Towards a framework for evaluating social media strategies.International journal of information management,36(1), pp.1-8. Hajli, N., 2015. 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